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  Calcium

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems General (Systemic)
Category Essential element.


Pharmacokinetics

It is absorbed mainly from the upper small bowels in soluble ionised form, by carrier mediated active transport, under the influence of vitamin D. Most ionised calcium is filtered at the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the tubules.



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Indications

Calcium supplements are needed for patients who are unable to get enough calcium in their regular diet or who have a need for more calcium. They are used to prevent or treat several conditions that may cause hypocalcemia . The body needs calcium for proper bone formation. Calcium is also needed for the heart, muscles, and nervous system to work effectively. The bones serve as a storage site for the body's calcium. They are constantly exchanging calcium with the bloodstream and then replacing it as the body's need for calcium changes from day to day. If there is not enough calcium in the blood to be used by the heart and other organs, the body will absorb the calcium from the bones weakening the bones and causing osteoposrosis. Pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, and adolescents may need more calcium than they normally get from eating calcium-rich foods. Post menopausal women may need to take calcium supplements to help prevent osteoporosis, which may occur in women after menopause.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Calcium carbonate 1.25 g orally(SANDOCAL) o.d. Calcium gluconate 500 mg orally(CALCIVIT - along with vit C and vitamin D) b.d or t.d.s



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Contra Indications

Calcium may be contraindicated in Cardiac disease: Calcium by injection may increase the chance of cardiac arrhythmias. Hypercalcemia, Hypercalciuria: Calcium supplements may worsen these conditions. Hyperparathyroidism, Sarcoidosis: Calcium supplements



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Precautions

Hypersensitivity reactions to the drug may occur. Precautions must be taken when taking the drug during pregnancy and lactation. It may also cause adverse effects in patients with renal disease.



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Interactions

Cellulose sodium phosphate: Use with calcium supplements may decrease the effects of cellulose sodium phosphate. Digitalis glycosides: Use with calcium supplements by injection may increase the chance of Cardiac arrhytmias. Etidronate: Use with calcium supplements may reduce the potency of etidronate. Magnesium sulfate: Use with calcium supplements may reduce its effectiveness. Phenytoin: Use with calcium supplements may reduce the effects of both drugs - calcium supplements should not be taken within 1 to 3 hours of phenytoin. Oral Tetracyclines: may decrease the potency of tetracycline, hence calcium supplements should not be taken within 1 to 3 hours of tetracyclines



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Brand Names

SANDOCAL[Novartis]: SHELCAL[Elder]: CALCIUM SANDOZ[Novartis]: CALCIVIT[Alpine]: CALCINOL[Raptakos].



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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