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  Penicillin

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems General (Systemic)
Category Antibacterial


Pharmacokinetics

Penicillin gets widely distributed through out the body and reaches high concentration in the urine. It also reaches significant level in bile, liver, skeletal muscle, brain and plasma. Its level gets raised in the presence of inflammation.



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Indications

Penicillin acts against Gram positive & some Gram negative organisms.It is effective against H. Influenza, Strep.Viridans, Proteus, Neisseria Gonorrhoea and Salmonella etc.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Penicillin G: For bacterial infections: For oral dosage form (oral solution, oral suspension, and tablets): Adults: 200,000 to 500,000 Units every four to six hours. Infants and children less than 12 years of age: Dose is based on body weight - 4000 to 30,000 Units per kilogram (kg) of body weight every four to eight hours. For benzathine Penicillin (injection): Adults : 1,200,000 to 2,400,000 Units injected intramuscular as a single dose. Infants and children: 300,000 to 1,200,000 Units injected intramuscular as a single dose; or 50,000 Units per kg of body weight injected intramuscular as a single dose. For injection dosage forms (potassium and sodium salts): Adults: 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 Units, injected intravenous or intramuscular every four to six hours. Older infants and children : The usual dose is 8000 to 25,000 Units per kg of body weight, injected intravenous or intramuscular every four to six hours. Premature infants and newborns : The usual dose is 30,000 Units per kg of body weight, injected I.V. or I.M.every twelve hours. For Procaine Penicillin (injection) : Adults and teenagers : 600,000 to 1,200,000 Units injected I.M. once a day. Children: The usual dose is 50,000 Units per kg of body weight, injected I.M.once a day. For penicillin V: For bacterial infections: For the benzathine salt oral dosage form (oral solution): Adults: 200,000 to 500,000 Units every six to eight hours.Children: 100,000 to 250,000 Units every six to eight hours. For the potassium salt oral dosage: Adults and teenagers : 125 to 500 milligrams (mg) every six to eight hours. Children :The usual dose is 2.5 to 16 mg per kilogram (kg) of body weight every four to eight hours.



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Contra Indications

Contraindicated in Renal failure, Lactation, Hypersenitivity to penicillin and penicillinase producing organisms.



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Precautions

In Allergy: Patients with a history of general allergies may be more likely to have a severe reaction to penicillin. Renal disease: Patients with renal disease may have an increased chance of side effects. Mononucleosis : Patients with mononucleosis may have an increased chance of skin rash when receiving penicillin. Stomach or intestinal disease (especially colitis, including colitis caused by antibiotics) : Patients with a history of stomach or intestinal disease may be more likely to develop colitis while taking penicillin.



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Interactions

Oral contraceptives containing estrogen : Use of Penicillins together with estrogen-containing oral contraceptives may prevent oral contraceptives from being effective, increasing the chance of pregnancy. Methotrexate : Use of methotrexate with penicillin may increase the chance of side effects of methotrexate. Probenecid : Probenecid causes penicillin to build up in the blood. This may increase the chance of adverse effects.



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Brand Names

Bistrepen( Alembic), Fortified PP (Sarabhai), Fortified Procaine Peni Inj (Alembic), Kaypen(Hindustan), Pencom(Alembic), Penidure(Wyeth Lederle), Penivoral(Franco- Indian), Pentids (Sarabhai), Bistrepen( Alembic), Fortified PP (Sarabhai), Fortified Procaine Peni Inj (Alembic), Kaypen(Hindustan), Pencom(Alembic), Penidure(Wyeth Lederle), Penivoral(Franco- Indian), Pentids (Sarabhai).



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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