Stones in the kidney are also called Nephrolithiasis or renal calculi. Stones can also be formed in the bladder and the ureters(connecting tubes between the kidneys and bladder). It is important to evaluate and treat kidney stones because they can lead to infection due to stasis and obstruction
and if untreated can progress to damage to kidneys and kidney failure.
The common type of stones are made of calcium, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate. The other less common types are made of
diammonium calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, cystine, urate and xanthine.
The type of stone, in size and content, determines the nature of treatment.
Usually, if the stone is less than 5mm in size, there is a good chance of it passing without any surgical intervention. If it is very painful, painkillers may be prescribed.
Depending on the type of stone, medication may also be prescribed.
If the kidney stone is larger than 1/2 inch (or 10mm) in diameter it will likely need to be either removed by surgery (open or endoscopic) or by lithrotripsy.